To learn the wording and punctuation conventions of mathematics, students benefit from individualized feedback on their writing and presentations.

### Resources for Undergraduates

- Stephen Maurer’s
*Undergraduate Guide to Writing Mathematics*contains a glossary of mathematical terms as well as sections on when to use displays, saying what you mean, style, words vs. symbols, etc. - Some students may find math dictionaries to be helpful.
- E. J. Borowski and J. M. Borwein’s
*Collins dictionary of mathematics*is also available as the online database*The MathResource Dictionary*. Searching is free; browse for a fee. - J. A. Glenn and G. H. Littler,
*A dictionary of mathematics*, 1984. - W. Karush,
*The crescent dictionary of mathematics*, 1962.

This dictionary includes terms from arithmetic through undergraduate-level topics such as game theory and linear programming. - G. James and R. C. James,
*Mathematics Dictionary*, 2nd ed., D. Van Norstrand Co., 1959

- E. J. Borowski and J. M. Borwein’s
- This excerpt from Reuben Hersh’s “Math Lingo vs. Plain English: Double Entendre” on the website
*Cut the Knot*gives many examples of differences in meaning between mathematical English and “plain English.” The entire article is published in*The American Mathematical Monthly*, vol 104, No 1, January 1997, pp 48-51. - Haynes Miller has some helpful observations about wording and style. See Sections B and C of his Notes on Writing Mathematics.
- Ivars Peterson makes important observations about wording for communication with non-mathematicians.
- Stephen Maurer addresses common student confusion about equations, expressions, and functions by demystifying the difference with examples and counterexamples of correct uses of these terms.
- Kevin Lee’s “Guide to Writing Mathematics” includes guidance and examples for how to use punctuation when combining equations and text.
- Steven Kleiman’s “Writing a Math Phase Two Paper” includes some punctuation examples in Section 4.
- Atish Bagchi and Charles Wells’ “On the Communication of Mathematical Reasoning,”
*PRIMUS*vol. 8, pages 15-27 (1998).

This article addresses conventions and pitfalls related to various aspects of notation and wording.

### Resources for K-12 educators and students

- Herrera, T., “Reading and Writing Mathematics”
*MSP: MiddleSchoolPortal*Accessed Feb 25, 2012.

This clickable, annotated bibliography for middle school educators includes a section on math vocabulary. Linked resources include a “collaborative vocabulary authoring toy,” math dictionaries, and class activities.

See further resources on the page of writing resources.